The major export industries of India are the agriculture sector, the leather and leather products sector, paper and paper products, handicrafts, and other which is being discussed in this section.
Indian exporting industries are growing rapidly. The sectors mentioned is improving day by day and they are more focussed towords the export part.
The agriculture sector was the main stay of the Indian economy for decades, now accounts for only about 25% of GDP, employing over 50% of the population. The Food Processing Industry is one of the largest in terms of production, consumption, export and growth prospects. The important sub sectors of it are Fruit & Vegetable Processing, Fish-processing, Meat & Poultry Processing, Milk Processing, Packaged/Convenience Foods, Alcoholic beverages & Soft drinks and Grain Processing etc.
India accounts for 2% of world trade in leather and leather products and 10% of leather raw materials. Leather exports in India account for 7% of which 80% is exported to US and some European countries. The new markets being developed are South Africa, Australia, New Zealand, Canada, Japan, Spain, Portugal, Saudi Arabia. The main production centres are Tamil Nadu, West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh, Delhi, Punjab, Maharashtra and Karnataka.
The types of leather products exported are as follows:
Paper and Paper Products
- Leather Footwear
- Footwear Components (Shoe Uppers, Soles, etc.)
- Leather Garments
- Leather Goods (Including Harness & Saddlery, Leather Gloves, etc.)
- Finished Leather
The paper industry has made India self-sufficient in manufacturing most varieties of paper, paperboard and newsprint. Currently 61% of the total production is based on non-wood raw material, the rest is wood based. The industry is highly fragmented with varying capacities from as 15 tpa to 300 tpa and above.
The handicrafts sector in India enjoys a special significance in the economy in terms of employment generation along with earnings of foreign exchange through exports. The reason in the boom of this industry is the easy availability of raw material and manpower, low capital requirements and employment potential. Talented and skilled people are also a major key driver.
Apparel & Textiles
See Textiles under Major Industries in India
Plastic and Plastic Products
The Indian Plastic Industry exports its products to more than 150 countries in the world. Its major trading partners are USA, UAE, Italy, UK, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Belgium, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Hong Kong, Germany, South Africa, Egypt, Netherlands and Spain.
See Chemicals under Major Industries in India
The Engineering industry is very diverse in India with a number of distinct sectors. Capital goods represent as one of the major sector, consisting both electrical as well as non-electrical machinery, transport equipment and machine tools. Its sub-sectors include castings, forgings and foundries. In Machine tools, India is the 18th largest producer in the world.
The key driver of the industry is technology which increases manufacturing efficiency, reduces power consumption and improves environment friendliness. A good number of Engineering Goods manufacturers have strong technical collaborations with some of the leading foreign engineering firms and they facilitates absorption of latest Technologies.
Gems and Jewellery
One of the foremost foreign exchange earners of India is its Gem and Jewellery Industry. The country's global market share of diamonds is 55% by value, 80% by cartage and 95% by pieces. India dominates the world's cut and polished diamonds (CPD) market. In terms of value, it accounts for nearly 55% of global polished diamond market and 9% of the jewellery market. The focus areas include USA, Japan, Europe, Middle East and other emerging markets.